KUZNETS, SIMON

KUZNETS, SIMON (1901–1985), U.S. economist, Nobel laureate. Born in Russia, Kuznets was educated in the U.S. He was assistant professor and then full professor of economics at the University of Pennsylvania (1936–54), and in 1960 was appointed professor of economics at Harvard. Kuznets' research in quantitative economics and his contribution to the understanding of modern economic growth encouraged new studies of the economic growth of nations. He sponsored the annual Conference of Research in Income and Wealth, organized from 1935 by the National Bureau of Economic Research, and he was among the founders in 1947 of the International Association for Research in Income and Wealth. From 1954 to 1964 he was chairman of the United States-based advisory committee of the Falk Project for Economic Research in Israel, and from 1964 he was a member of the board of trustees of its successor, the Maurice Falk Institute for Economic Research in Israel. Kuznets' research may be divided into three periods. Between 1926 and 1930 he concentrated on analyzing economic change, examining movements in production and prices, cyclical fluctuations, and seasonal variations in industry and trade. During the following two decades his work centered on measuring national income with emphasis on capital formation. After 1950 he focused on explaining the comparative economic growth of nations. He was also particularly concerned with the practical application of his research, and during World War II his national account framework served to study the feasibility of the war production program and to control it. Kuznets stressed the link between the social and economic framework of society that is apparent not only in the history of nations but also in minority groups like the Jews. In the Diaspora they congregated in urban areas where they entered the professions or specialized in finance and trade. Their frequent displacements affected their economic development. Jews have been conditioned to accept economic change and to enter occupations and industries with growth potential where there have been opportunities for economic advancement. This significantly influenced the level of income and wealth of Jewish minorities as compared with their gentile surroundings. Kuznets retired from Harvard in 1971 and was given the title of George F. Baker Professor Emeritus of Economics. In 1971 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in economics for his "empirically   founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into economic and social structure and process of development." Kuznets' publications include National Income and its Composition 1919–1938 (1941), Shares of Upper Income Groups in Income and Savings (1953), Capital in the American Economy: Its Formation and Financing (1961), and Modern Economic Growth (1966), Economic Growth of Nations (1971), Quantitative Economic Research (1972), Population, Capital, and Growth (1973), National Income (1975), and Commodity Flow and Capital Formation (1975). -ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. Feldstein et al., American Economy in Transition (1980). (Rachel Floersheim / Ruth Beloff (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Kuznets, Simon — ▪ American economist and statistician in full  Simon Smith Kuznets  born April 30 [April 17, Old Style], 1901, Kharkov, Ukraine, Russian Empire [now Kharkiv, Ukraine] died July 8, 1985, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.       Russian born American… …   Universalium

  • Kuznets,Simon — Kuz·nets (ko͝ozʹnĕts , ko͞ozʹnĭts), Simon. 1901 1985. Russian born American economist. He won a 1971 Nobel Prize for developing a method of using a country s gross national product to determine its economic growth. * * * …   Universalium

  • Kuznets, Simon — (1905 85)    American economist, of Russian origin. Born in Pinsk, he went with his family to Kharkov. He studied at the University of Kharkov and worked in the Division of Statistics of the Central Soviet of Trade. In 1922 he settled in the US… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Kuznets, Simon (Smith) — born April 30, 1901, Kharkov, Ukraine, Russian Empire died July 8, 1985, Cambridge, Mass., U.S. Russian U.S. economist and statistician. He immigrated to the U.S. in 1922 and joined the National Bureau of Economic Research in 1927; he later… …   Universalium

  • Kuznets, Simon (Smith) — (30 abr. 1901, Járkov, Ucrania, Imperio Ruso–8 jul. 1985, Cambridge, Mass., EE.UU.). Economista y estadístico rusoestadounidense. Emigró a EE.UU. en 1922 y se incorporó a la Oficina nacional de investigación económica en 1927. Posteriormente, fue …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Simon Kuznets — Simon Smith Kuznets (* 30. April 1901 in Charkiw, Ukraine; † 8. Juli 1985 in Cambridge) war ein US amerikanischer Ökonom. Er erhielt 1971 den Preis für Wirtschaftswissenschaften der schwedischen Reichsbank in Gedenken an Alfred Nobel (als… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Kuznets — Simon Smith Kuznets (* 30. April 1901 in Charkiw, Ukraine; † 8. Juli 1985 in Cambridge) war ein US amerikanischer Ökonom. Er erhielt 1971 den Preis für Wirtschaftswissenschaften der schwedischen Reichsbank in Gedenken an Alfred Nobel (als… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Simon Kuznets — Infobox Scientist name = Simon Kuznets image size = 180px birth date = birth date|1901|4|30|mf=y birth place = Pinsk death date = death date and age|1985|7|8|1901|4|30|mf=y death place = Cambridge, Massachusetts nationality = United States field …   Wikipedia

  • Simon — /suy meuhn/; Fr. /see mawonn / for 7, n. 1. the original name of the apostle Peter. Cf. Peter. 2. Simon the Zealot, one of the twelve apostles. Matt. 10:4. 3. the Canaanite, one of the twelve apostles. Matt. 10:4; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15. 4. a… …   Universalium

  • Simón — (De coche de don Simón, nombre que hace referencia a un alquilador de coches madrileño.) ► sustantivo masculino Antiguo coche de caballos de alquiler. * * * simón (de «coche de Don Simón», por referencia a un alquilador de coches) adj. y n. m. Se …   Enciclopedia Universal

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